File Formats Wiki
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A file format is a specific method to store information for storage in a computer file.

Since a computer storage can store only bits, the computer must have some way of converting information to 0s and 1s and vice-versa. There are different kinds of formats for different kinds of information. Within any format type, e.g., word processor documents, there will typically be several different formats. Sometimes these formats compete with each other.


Some file formats are designed to store very particular sorts of data: the JPEG format, for example, is designed only to store static photographic images. Other file formats, however, are designed for storage of several different types of data: the GIF format supports storage of both still images and simple animations, and the QuickTime format can act as a container for many different types of multimedia. A text file is simply one that stores any text, in a format such as ASCII or UTF-8, with few if any control characters. Some file formats, such as HTML, or the source code of some particular programming language, are in fact also text files, but adhere to more specific rules which allow them to be used for specific purposes.


Many file formats, including some of the most well-known file formats, have a published specification document (often with a reference implementation) that describes exactly how the data is to be encoded, and which can be used to determine whether or not a particular program treats a particular file format correctly. There are, however, two reasons why this is not always the case. First, some file format developers view their specification documents as trade secrets, and therefore do not release them to the public. Second, some file format developers never spend time writing a separate specification document; rather, the format is defined only implicitly, through the program(s) that manipulate data in the format.

Using file formats without a publicly available specification can be costly. Learning how the format works will require either reverse engineering it from a reference implementation or acquiring the specification document for a fee from the format developers. This second approach is possible only when there is a specification document, and typically requires the signing of a non-disclosure agreement. Both strategies require significant time, money, or both. Therefore, as a general rule, file formats with publicly available specifications are supported by a large number of programs, while non-public formats are supported by only a few programs.

Patent law, rather than copyright, is more often used to protect a file format. Although patents for file formats are not directly permitted under US law, some formats require the encoding of data with patented algorithms. For example, using compression with the GIF file format requires the use of a patented algorithm, and although initially the patent owner did not enforce it, they later began collecting fees for use of the algorithm. This has resulted in a significant decrease in the use of GIFs, and is partly responsible for the development of the alternative PNG format. However, the patent expired in the US in mid-2003, and worldwide in mid-2004. Algorithms are usually held not to be patentable under current European law, which also includes a provision that members "shall ensure that, wherever the use of a patented technique is needed for a significant purpose such as ensuring conversion of the conventions used in two different computer systems or networks so as to allow communication and exchange of data content between them, such use is not considered to be a patent infringement", which would apparently allow implementation of a patented file system where necessary to allow two different computers to interoperate.[1]


  1. Foundation for a Free Information Infrastructure. "Europarl 2003-09-24: Amended Software Patent Directive". Retrieved on 2007-01-07.
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